College of Health Sciences Course Catalogue

The College of Health and Life Sciences of Abaarso Tech University (ATU) recognizes the need for a well-educated and formed cadre of health service professionals connected together by the desire to improve the health and well-being of our community. Demand for health care professionals is rising globally. Scientific, medical and economic advances are rapidly changing our knowledge about human health, introducing new treatment options, identifying avoidable risks factors and as a result prolonging life throughout the world. Conversely, new and emerging infectious diseases (EBOLA, HIV, H1N1 and fast-moving respiratory epizootic viral infections), the advent of antibiotic resistant bacteria (some with enormous morbidity and mortality potential) highlight the importance of new and integrated approaches to health prevention and curative capabilities of all nations.

People in developing countries, including in our region, are now faced with a myriad of chronic diseases traditionally only seen in affluent societies. Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmunity and connective tissue disorders are new challenges for our healthcare systems. We are diagnosing blood disorders such as leukemia in our communities at increasing rates but remain ill-equipped in our diagnostic laboratories and treating facilities and largely lack the knowledge necessary to helping these patients.

In the College of Health and Life Sciences, ATU offers an innovative teaching environment in four departments: Biomedical Sciences, Medical laboratory Technology (MLT, Clinical Laboratory), Nursing and Midwifery and Public Health.

Twenty-first century medicine and health care are breaking technological and scientific barriers. Medical scientists and doctors are peering into the tiniest cervices of cells and tissue and even editing genes at the single DNA base level. Biomedical Sciences, combining comprehensive learning in the basic sciences and experimental medicine, focus the student on how cells, tissues, organs and systems function and respond to disease, injury and medicine ––an understanding which helps us design interventions and care.

Careful examination and experimentation in medical research, discovery of new medicine and pharmaceuticals, medical imaging and intervention technologies, new advances in gene therapy and immunotherapeutics, genomic research and new ideas on vaccine development in the prevention of new and old infectious diseases are the multi-faces of biomedical sciences. Students majoring in biomedical sciences and the related disciplines have the flexibility in career choices; in medicine, pharmaceuticals, medical technology, clinical diagnostic technology, agricultural and food and livestock sciences.

Biomedical sciences at ATU are taught in tandem with Medical Laboratory Technology (MLT) which prepares students for clinical laboratory careers, consequently biomedical students may at the completion of their rigorous subject work, opt to join the MLT program by completing practical laboratory work.
The College of Health and `Life Sciences at ATU provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in Public Health to form health professionals for the improvement of our community’s overall health: individuals, families and the community in general. The focus is on “the big picture” of promoting a healthy community, constructing the policies, enacting the interventions, and performing the research for understanding community disease burden, prevalent risks and promoting evidence-based policies and prevention strategies.

The biomedical sciences and public health curricula are described elsewhere in this catalogue.

Following is the curricula for MLT, Nursing and Midwifery.

DEPARTMENT OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES

CAREERS IN BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES

Biomedical Science is a broad field of applied biology and related sciences that touches many areas of health and disease. Career opportunities in this field are many. The biomedical science field is largely concerned with uncovering the causes of human diseases either as part of clinical treatment and patient care or research into the cause and pathogenesis of diseases and in the search for lasting solutions. It is also in involved in the general study of pathogens and their properties. Biomedical science is also concerned with the environment and factors that have an impact on the overall health and wellbeing.

Biomedical scientists work in hospitals, university research centers, life science companies, biotechnology and bioengineering companies, pharmaceutical companies, science equipment manufacturers and suppliers and clinical laboratories throughout the health care system.

Biomedical Scientists also work for government agencies in a variety of positions in regulatory and oversight agencies, disease prevention and control departments and quality assurance and control of products such as pharmaceuticals, food products and other consumer goods that could have a health impact.

Specific jobs include the following:

Jobs in the field can be put into two broad categories: Basic jobs requiring a bachelor’s degree with certification in specific areas or “advanced jobs” that do not often require certification, but involve advanced degrees and specialization.

THE FOLLOWING ARE CATEGORIES OF PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES

A microbiologist is a biomedical scientist who studies micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, especially the pathogens that cause disease in humans, animals and plants. In patient management, microbiologists isolate, culture and identify pathogens, determine drug sensitivities and define the appropriate antibiotic regiments required to get rid of them. The microbiologist’s role is becoming more critical with the emergence of dangerous and multi-drug resistant species such in tuberculosis and staphylococcus and many other diseases.

  • Identifying blood groups, fractionating blood and its elements and managing transfusion and ensuring the integrity of blood supply throughout the health care system is critical for patient management and disease control. Bio-scientists in this field are also becoming increasingly needed for the diagnosis and management of blood diseases such as leukemia, malaria and anemia. These clinicians are also involved in the important kidney dialysis clinics.

  • Clinical chemistry is an integral part of disease diagnosis and treatment. Proper organ function and balanced physiology is determined by the clinical chemist or biochemist. Diabetes, kidney and liver functions, endocrinology and many other physiological parameters are the domain of the analytic biochemist.

Scientists in this field are the final determinants of disease often providing the confirmation of a disease state, for example in cancer. Their expertise is called upon not only for the diagnosis of the diseased tissue, but in determining the course and effectiveness of treatment.

Virologists may be considered a sub-specialty in microbiology, but because the field has expanded in breadth and scope, virologists are now considered separate, especially with the emergence of HIV and other emerging diseases such Ebola, Hantaviruses and others and in the realization of a link between virus infections and cancer.
Like virology immunology has grown out of microbiology. It has grown substantially in the past thirty years with no less than 22 immunologists receiving the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Immunologists are involved in disease diagnosis, such as in serology, identification of micro-organisms, in the management of autoimmunity, immunodeficiency and allergic reactions. Immunology is also the science of vaccines and vaccine constructon both for human diseases and animal infections. The work of immunologists is also important in tissue and organ transplantation and in the new immunotherapy techniques such as in the treatment of cancers.

All these jobs require theoretical training generally in Microbiology, Immunology or Biochemistry and a heavy emphasis on laboratory practical. In addition to graduation from an accredited program, these jobs require apprentice training in a hospital or similar setting. In some countries, these jobs are classified as medical technologists.

ADVANCED CAREERS

In addition to the above, biomedical scientists can go on to do advanced training involving specialization through a Master’s Degree or higher. Students who reach this level either assume supervisory roles in medical and clinical laboratories or go on to work in research and development (R&D) as scientists. These scientists work for research universities, biotechnology and life science or pharmaceutical companies, in the food industry or for government regulatory agencies, institutes of health, centers for disease prevention and control, vaccine development centers or in the general public health field. Students who attain advanced degrees have a wide range of opportunities as the biotechnology field is growing and include cutting edge or frontier technologies such gene technology/therapy, cloning and stem cell research, biomedical engineering, imaging technologies and nanotechnology.

BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES AT ABAARSO TECH UNIVERSITY

Program Description

Starting in August 2013, Abaarso Tech University has been offering both undergraduate and graduate degrees in the biomedical sciences. The Department of Biomedical Sciences is in the Faculty of the Life Sciences of ATU. Students in these degree programs will become proficient in the following subjects: Microbiology, Basic and Clinical Immunology, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Histopathology, Medical Genetics, Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine and Epidemiology and Biostatistics.

Undergraduate students desiring to pursue a profession in the clinical sciences will take three years of college courses followed by a one year of clinical laboratory training and will be awarded the professional medical technologist certification as well as the Bachelor of Sciences Degree.

In addition students taking the first three years of course work will have completed the general pre-med course work that may help students to enroll in accredited medical schools.

Course Requirements

Biomedical Science and Premedical Track
Year I Semester II
Code Course Credit Hours (16)
BMED111 1- College biology 3
BMED112 2- General chemistry 3
BMED113/MATH 101 3- Pre-calculus 3
BMED114 4- English I 3
BMED115 5- Introduction of medical laboratory technology 4
Year I Semester II
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
BMED121 1- Cell biology 3
BMED122/ENG101 2- Academic writing 4
BMED123 3- Organic chemistry 3
BMED124 4- Anatomy and physiology I 4
BMED125 5- Calculus 3
Year I Semester III
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
BMED131 1- Genetics 3
BMED132 2- Biostatistics 4
BMED133 3- Anatomy and physiology II 3
BMED134 4- General biochemistry 4
BMED135 5- Environmental health 3
Year II Semester I
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
BMED211 1- Introduction of microbiology 4
BMED212 2- Analytical technique 3
BMED213 3- Molecular biology 3
BMED214 4- Principles of immunology 3
BMED215 5- Histology 4 4
Year II Semester II
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
BMED221 1- Medical parasitology I 4
BMED222 2- Bacteriology I 3
BMED223 3- Urinalysis 3
BMED224 4- Serology 3
BMED225 5- Pharmacology I 4
Year II Semester III
Code Course Credit Hours (18)
BMED231 1- Bacteriology II 4
BMED222 2- General pathology 4
BMED223 3- Pharmacology II 4
BMED234 4- Virology 3
BMED235 5- Immunopathology 3
Year III Semester I
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
BMED311 1- Hematology I 4
BMED312 2- Toxicology 3
BMED313 3- Mycology 3
BMED314 4- Histopathology 4
BMED315 5- Medical parasitology II 3
Year III Semester II
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
BMED321 1- Immunohematology 3
BMED322 2- Hematology II 4
BMED323 3- Communicable diseases 3
BMED324 4- Research methodology 3
BMED325 5- Clinical chemistry I 4
Year III Semester III
Code Course Credit Hours (13)
BMED331 1- Body fluid analysis 3
BMED332 2- Clinical chemistry II 4
BMED333 3- Non-communicable disease 3
BMED334 4- Food and Water microbiology 3
Two months before the graduation
Code Course Credit Hours (24)
BMED315DIS 1- Dissertation 24 credits

MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY (MLT)

Medical Laboratory Technology, sometimes known as the Medical Laboratory Science or Clinical Laboratory, is a program that trains highly qualified professionals in laboratory diagnostics. MLT is focused on the professional performance of laboratory disease diagnosis. To qualify for an MLT at ATU, students are required to complete 3 years of full-time course work in Hematology, Serology, Immunology, Bacteriology, Mycology, Parasitology, Clinical Chemistry, Pharmacology and Histopathology. After completion of the 3-year program, students are assigned to a regional hospital laboratory to complete supervised work. After successful completion of the supervised internship, ATU certifies the successful candidate as an MLT.

Course Requirements

Medical Laboratory Technology
Year I Semester I
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
MLT 111 Advanced biology 4
MLT112 General College chemistry 4
MLT113 Pre-calculus 3
MLT114 Remedial English I 3
MLT115 Introduction of medical laboratory technology 3
Year I Semester II
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
MLT 121 Advanced Cellular biology 4
MLT122 English II: Academic Writing 3
MLT123 College Physics 3
MLT124 Introduction to Psychology 3
MLT125 Calculus 4
Year I Semester III
Code Course Credit Hours (19)
MLT 131 Anatomy and Physiology I 4
MLT132 Organic chemistry 4
MLT133 Molecular biology and Human Genetics 3
MLT134 Biostatistics 3
MLT135 Analytical techniques I 3
MLT 136 Human Anatomy and Physiology Lab 2
Year II Semester I
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
MLT 211 Anatomy and physiology II 4
MLT 212 Medical microbiology 3
MLT213 Clinical chemistry I 3
MLT214 General biochemistry 4
MLT215 Human Genetics, Inheritance and Congenital Disorders 3
Year II Semester II
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
MLT 221 Medical parasitology 4
MLT222 Principle of immunology 3
MLT223 Urinalysis 3
MLT224 Environmental health 4
MLT225 Histology and histopathology 3
Year II Semester III
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
MLT 231 Laboratory management and ethics 3
MLT232 Hematology 4
MLT233 Health economics 3
MLT234 Mycology 4
MLT235 Serology 3
Year III Semester I
Code Course Credit Hours (18)
MLT 311 Bacteriology Culture and Differentiation 4
MLT 312 Mycology 3
MLT 313 Pharmacology II 3
MLT 314 Autoimmunity, Allergy and Hypersensitivity 4
MLT 315 Clinical chemistry I 4
Year III Semester II
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
MLT 321 Virology 4
MLT 322 Food and Water Microbiology 3
MLT 323 Epidemiology 3
MLT 324 Hematology II 4
MLT 325 Pathogenesis of infectious diseases 3
Year III Semester III
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
MLT 331 Pharmacology II 4
MLT 332 Clinical Chemistry II 3
MLT 333 Hematology Clinical Lab 3
MLT 334 Body Fluid Analysis 4
MLT 335 Overview of Laboratory Tests, Automation 3
Year IV
Code Course
MLT 411 Certification Examination Preparation

Course Descriptions

MLT 111: Advanced Biology
This one trimester course is required for all students in the MLT and Biomedical Sciences programs. MLT 111 is a foundation course designed to complete gaps in prior education in biology and biochemistry to give students the competence needed for participation in the rigorous study in biochemistry and organic, cellular and molecular biology, genetics, immunology and hematology.

MLT 112: General College Chemistry
The purpose of this course is to introduce the biomedical and clinical laboratory scientist to general concepts of chemistry. Core concepts of chemistry and how they apply to human life and health and basic chemical processes and reactions, clinicians, technicians and scientists will encounter professionally are emphasized.

MLT 113: Pre-Calculus, MLT 125 Calculus
These two trimester companion courses advance knowledge in mathematics students may have learned in high school. The first semester, pre-calculus, is advanced Algebra and Trigonometry covering a review of Algebra, polynomials, exponential and logarithmic functions and graphing. The second trimester- Calculus introduces more advanced concepts in functions and limits and differential equations and the application of integral applications.

MLT 114: ENGLISH (Remedial or Freshmen Course), English --- (Writing and Comprehension).
Many years of student intake have shown lack of competence in the language of instruction. The English language courses in the college are designed to correct the deficiencies so that students reach an advanced level of English to empower them as learners especially in the often-difficult language of science.

MLT 115: Introduction to Medical Laboratory Technology
This a course designed to give the student a good understanding of laboratory analytic techniques in chemistry and biology. It will be a theoretical survey of techniques used in the clinic and will prepare the student for basic and advanced laboratory practical. This is the first laboratory in this series and will introduce students to safety, sterility, avoidance of contamination, accident prevention AND RECORD Keeping

MLT 121: Introduction to Cellular Biology (4 credits)
Cells are the building blocks of life and understanding cell biology and the function of cellular organelles is an integral part of biology, physiology and medicine. All students in the biomedical sciences and medical laboratory technology will be required to understand the morphology and function of all cell types and their organelles. The course will cover the physiological properties, structure, organelles, replication and cell division, and programmed cell death. The course is a companion to histopathology which will be taken in the third year of the program.

MLT 122 or ENG 201: English II: Academic Writing, Prerequisite ENG 101
This is a university-wide course for students who have mastered intermediate to advanced level English language competence to gain writing skills for the purpose of effective communication in a scientific and business environment. For nursing students, it is vital that they are able to communicate effectively with their colleagues and institutions and to convey scientific knowledge to their peers and the larger public.

MLT 123: College Physics
Understanding fundamental physics and physical properties is essential in fully comprehending the technologies and procedures used in diagnostic procedures from simple diffusion reactions, to the optical properties used in light and electron microscopes, lasers, spectrophotometers used in clinical chemistry and in diagnostic imaging technology. The course will expand on their high school physics education and focus on advanced principles in thermodynamics, light properties, reflection, refraction, light scatter.

MLT 124: Introduction to Psychology
In this course students are taught basic psychology concepts involving basic science such as behavior, cognition and emotion. The course will study how psychology is relevant to medicine, science and learning and psychological factors in illness and respond to treatment.

MLT 125: Calculus. Please see Pre-Calculus companion course MLT 113

MLT: 131: Anatomy and Physiology I and Anatomy and Physiology II MLT 221
This is a two-trimester course divided into part I and part II due to the large body of course work to be covered. The second part will be taught as MLT 221 in the 3rd trimester of each year. The complete course is a foundation for anatomy and physiology of the human body covering in an introductory manner body systems and organs including skeletal, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, reproductive, urinary and endocrine systems. Focus will be on the relationship between structure and function. MLT 131 is a prerequisite for MLT 221 (Anatomy and Physiology II) and all pathophysiology and histopathology courses. MLT 113 must be taken together with MLT 112 below (Lab). to follow online instructions and to perform self-examinations.

MLT 132: Organic Chemistry
MLT 132 is a freshmen college level course for all students in the College of Health and Life Sciences. Students will learn fundamental aspects of hydrocarbons and their derivatives and functional groups on their structure, acid-base reactions, stereochemistry. Students will be taught to recognize major classes of organic compounds such as alkanes, alkenes, alcohols and phenols.

MLT 133: Introduction to Molecular Biology Human Genetics
Since the discovery of the structure of DNA and associated molecules, we have obtained a staggering level of knowledge. The course will teach students in the college’s allied health program classical human genetics and congenial disorders. The students will also be introduced to our current understanding of the human genome, the nature of DNA and genes and transmittance of inheritance. MLT students will learn DNA and RNA mechanisms of transcription, translation and protein synthesis.

MLT 134: Biostatistics
This is a college-wide course. MLTs and allied health scientists are participants of medical and clinical research and must be proficient in performing scientific research as well as in understanding scientific literature, both of these require understanding of descriptive statistics and parametric and nonparametric tests. This course will introduce the student to commonly used basic and fundamental statistical techniques such as meanings of p values, confidence limits, sample size calculations, Student’s t test, chi-square and how to construct these analytical tools. Students will be asked to compile data sets, analyze these data sets statistically and make understandable descriptive illustrations.

MLT: 135: Analytical Techniques in Biology and Medicine
This is a college wide course offered in the MLT, Nursing and Midwifery programs. Students will be introduced to the essential elements of commonly used measurements of chemicals and chemical concentrations relevant to clinical practice especially as they relate to drugs, vaccines and other therapeutic formulations. Students will learn how to use instruments and utensils to measure and prepare appropriate solutions from stock ingredients. Prepare essential solutions for laboratory work, saline, buffered standards, measure pH, prepare serial dilutions.

MLT 136: Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory
In this course students will get hands-on practical on the human anatomy and physiology.
Instruction will be on life-size models allowing students to visualize in detail all body systems. Students will also study on a computerized interactive, touch screen simulation, which allow students

MLT 211: Anatomy and Physiology II (see Anatomy and Physiology I, MLT 131

MLT 212: Introduction to Medical Microbiology
This course is an introductory course of infectious diseases and the causative pathogenic microorganisms. It will introduce concepts in pathogenicity and virulence of bacteria, viruses and fungi. The course will lay the foundation of the more advanced course “pathogenesis of infectious diseases”.

MLT 213: Clinical Chemistry, I
This course will introduce concepts used in chemical pathology analysis. The instructor will cover subjects related to optical properties such as light transmittance, reflection, refraction, scatter and absorption. Students will be trained on spectrophotometry an will be trained on the construction of standard curves and chemical concentrations.

MLT 214: Biochemistry
This course is an introduction to biological chemistry and will cover topics as the structure and function of biological molecules, including nucleic acids, enzymatic reactions, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and vitamins. The course will also cover metabolic pathways and bioenergetics, including glycolysis, respiration, oxidation of fatty acids, and photosynthesis and fermentation. Students are strongly advised to take a course in cell biology and general chemistry before taking this course.

MLT 215: Human Genetics, Inheritance and Congenital Abnormalities.
This course is designed to give the student sound grounding in Molecular Biology covering DNA structure and organization, the process of replication, transcription and translation and the synthesis of proteins. The organization of cellular genomes, gene sequencing and mapping. Students will be introduced to recombinant DNA technology, biomedical engineering and gene therapy. Students will be assigned course work on virtual genome laboratories

MLT 221: Medical Parasitology
The Medical Parasitology course will cover the general properties and nature of the major human parasites, their life cycle and mechanisms of pathogenicity. It will cover protozoans, worms, helminths. Lecture topics will be designed to give an overall survey to describe parasite-host relationships, physiology, morphology and ecology of parasites that impact human life globally.

MLT 222: Fundamentals of Immunology
Understanding Immunology and immunological techniques has become vital in all aspects of biology, biomedical sciences, clinical sciences, diagnostics and treatment of many diseases. This course will cover basic concepts in immunology. Students will learn the importance of the immune system for health. Students will learn basic immunological mechanisms including antibody production, antigen-antibody reactions, cellular immunology, organs and cells of the lymphatic immune system, specific and nonspecific immunity, immunization and construction of vaccines, immunopathology, autoimmunity and immunodeficiency.

MLT 223: Urinalysis--- Clinical Lab Practical
Urine is one of the most tested body fluid in the clinical diagnosis of disease and performing urine analysis of patients quickly and accurately is an indispensable competence even for the most junior laboratory technician. In this course students will be taught to perform three examinations on urine: physical examination (odor, color etc.) chemical examination using color coding or automated analyzer and microscopic sediment examination.

MLT 224: Environmental Standards and Health.
Infections associated with healthcare institutions affect between 5-30% patients representing a significant disease burden globally. Consequently, providing for safe environment in all healthcare setting has become a high priority in the control of infectious diseases. Students will be introduced to interventions and standards that have been introduced over the years to directed at improving healthful environment.

MLT 225: Histology and Histopathology
The course covers pathology, the study of disease, diagnosis for definitive cause of disease through histological examination of tissues and organs, body fluids and after death at autopsy. Students will be taught histological techniques for preserving removed tissue, fixation, processing and performing various staining for further final microscopic examination. The course starts with the study of normal tissue and then be presented to the examination of types of injury and changes that take place in abnormal diseased tissues and organs.

MLT 231: Laboratory Management, Quality Control, Records and Quality Control and Assurance
The Laboratory Quality Management System (LQMS, SO 15189) sets standards and controls for the conducting clinical laboratory testing in high quality manner fit for purpose to correctly diagnose the presence or absence of disease indicators or risk factors. The course will cover quality control and quality assurance, record keeping to ensure that these controls are done correctly, and that corrective action is taken in a demonstrative manner. Students will also learn about the importance of laboratory standard procedures (SOPs).

MLT 232: Hematology Clinical Laboratory
This is a practical companion to previous courses in hematology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases. Blood is the most common body fluid studied in the clinical laboratory for the diagnosis of infections, blood disorders including leukemias, anemia and red cell abnormalities. Students will have hands-on experience in collecting blood specimens, prepare the specimens for analysis and perform both microscopic and automated analysis of blood and its components.

MLT: 233: Ethics and integrity for Health care Professional
This core course is critical examination of central ethical issues in the health care field. The course examines the nature of ethics and how it can be applied to the health care in its many aspects. The course will explain what ethical concern are, how to reason in “solving” ethical dilemmas and how to approach difficult cases in health care ethics.

MLT 234: Epidemiology and Research
Laboratory Medical Scientists and other allied health professionals participate in medical research. Their contribution is greatly enhanced by their understanding of the basic concepts of medical research. This course will introduce the laboratory scientist to basic epidemiological principles of description and distributions of the frequency of disease, identification of factors related to the disease cause and collection, compiling and analyzing data often obtained in the laboratory.

MLT 235: Serology and Immunology Laboratory
Antigen-antibody reactions underlie common and complex diagnostic serological assays. Through serology, the laboratory scientist can now detect infections (past or present), autoimmune diseases, connective tissue diseases, cancer biomarkers and a wide array of analytes. The advent of RIA and ELISA have made it possible to detect minute amounts of elements in blood or other tissues or even as environmental contaminants. The discovery of hybridoma technology in the production of monoclonal antibodies has made serological procedures highly specific and capable of differentiating microorganism sub-types and strains based on minute structural differences and made it easier to perform automated procedures such as flow cytometry.

MLT 311: Bacteriology Culture and Differentiation
This course is a combination of a lecture series to help students learn the properties of bacteria and their classification and taxonomy followed by laboratory work on culturing techniques, the various culture media used to differentiate or selectively grow the important pathogenic bacteria and the staining techniques that are used in the laboratory to identify bacteria through morphology, color patterns, enzyme synthesis and fermentations of substrates. Students will also be taught such techniques as the standard Kirby-Baur test for antibiotic resistance.

MLT 312: Medical Mycology
Fungal diseases remain the causes of significant morbidity and mortality around the world. Increasing severity and invasiveness of fungal infections world-wide are being seen in HIV and others suffering from immunodeficiency disorders, patients going through chemotherapy for cancer treatment, patients with autoimmune disorders, transplant patients and chronically-ill patients with long hospital stays or in community center.
The course will help students learn fungal species that cause disease in humans and their pathogenicity, the clinical problems they cause and the laboratory techniques, both classic and modern used in the laboratory.

MLT 313: Pharmacology and Therapeutics: Pharmacology I;: Pharmacology II
This a two trimester long extensive course given college-wide and divided into Pharmacology I and Pharmacology II ). Students will first be introduced to basic therapeutic drugs, determination of correct doses for administration, rationale for modes of administration, peak levels, half-life, and clearance; pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These concepts will be expanded in the second part of the course to include drug toxicity, side effects and drug-drug interactions. Major classes of therapeutic drugs will also be covered emphasizing drugs for long term use and their implications for the chronic ill patients. New therapeutics for antivirals will also be included. Nurses and midwives take this same course as well.

MLT 314: Understanding and Diagnosing Autoimmune Disease and Allergies
This course is taken at senior year and is aimed at introducing the laboratory scientist to representative examples of the more than 80 known autoimmune diseases. The students will learn the laboratory tools available for the investigation of autoimmunity using examples including thyroid abnormality detections, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and ulcerative colitis as representative examples of organ specific and systematic autoimmunity.

MLT 315: Clinical Chemistry I and II MLT 3331)
For the MLT track students, this is a two-trimester course. Clinical Chemistry or Chemical Pathology has emerged as the main component of the clinical hospital laboratory. MLTs are required to test for hundreds of analytes in blood and other body fluids. MLTs are required not only to perform these tests, often in automated and semi-automated instruments, but also to understand the procedures and reaction processes that underline these tests. This is a challenging course and starts with a review of physics, optical properties, standard curves and calculations of concentrations, errors, controls and calibrations and methods of testing for accuracy.
The second part of the course (II) will cover chemical reactions used in testing procedures and will cover all the reactions used in all the main analytes.

MLT 321 Virology
The course will first cover basics of virology -nature and properties and nomenclature and then delve into the major medically important viruses. Students will be introduced to mechanisms of virus replication and the mechanisms virus infect cells and tissues and cause disease in the host. Virus pathogenicity and virulence as well as examples of cell tropism and the importance of cellular receptors will also be covered.

MLT 322: Food and water microbiology
Food and water can be a major source of infections and ill health due to contamination with microorganisms, toxins and chemicals. In this course, students will first learn how to recognize spoilage and pathogenic and normal pathogens commonly found. The course will then be taught modern and standard techniques for isolation, culturing and testing for pathogenic microorganisms in food and water and national standards for safety levels.

MLT: 323:
Since the discovery of the structure of DNA and associated molecules, we have obtained a staggering level of knowledge. The course will teach students in the college’s allied health program classical human genetics and congenial disorders. The students will also be introduced to our current understanding of the human genome, the nature of DNA and genes and transmittance of inheritance.

MLT 324: Hematology
The hematology course is deliberately designed as a third-year course and comes students have sound grounding on immunology and have already participated in a laboratory practical on hematology. They must already be acquainted with blood and its components. The focus will be on understanding the organization and function of blood forming organs, hematopoiesis, cell maturation and circulation, their function and product synthesis. Students will also learn about hematological disorders, characteristics, diagnostic and differentiation features. Benign and malignancy disorders of white blood cells will also be covered.

MLT 325: Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases
This course is a college wide requirement for students in the Medical Laboratory Technology, Nursing and Midwifery. Infectious diseases remain major causes of disease in both developing and developed world regions of the world and present leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The course will focus on infectious diseases prevalent in the region covering bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. The interplay between the mode of pathogen entry into the human body, their transmission from host to host, carrier vectors and disease causation will be addressed. Students will be introduced to the complex interaction between infectious agents and cellular elements, such as receptors and adhesion molecules in infections and disease. The connection between the hosts immune response and inflammation will be discussed.

MLT 331: Clinical Chemistry II (see Clinical Chemistry I, MLT 315)
MLT 332: Pharmacology II ( see pharmacology I)
MLT 333: Hematology Clinical Lab
This hematology laboratory is designed is a college-wide course and instructs the student with techniques ranging from phlebotomy, understanding blood specimen collection techniques, requirements for the various vacutainer tubes used in blood collection and subsequent performance of differential counts, both manual and automated. Understanding the meanings and implication of values such as total and differential cell counts, hematocrit and hb, microcytic and macrocytic anemia determinations and various blood cell disorders.
Students in the MLT track will be trained on the preparation and staining of peripheral blood slides and recognition of stages of differentiation, abnormal cells, normocytic, macrocytic and hb content descriptions.

MLT 332: Body Fluid Analysis
In addition to the easily accessible blood, urine and stool, medical laboratories are sometimes aske to examine other body fluids such as synovial, serous, and seminal. Procedures for testing these fluids for abnormalities is less standardized than blood and urine testing. Nevertheless these fluids may give important indications about certain indications about diseases such as malignancies. The students will learn the normal physical states of these fluids, special collection methods used, testing procedures and what indications to look for.

MLT 335: Overview of Laboratory Tests
Using body fluids alone, most commonly blood, urine and feces, the clinical laboratory can now test for more than 700 analytes that help in diagnosis of disease. No one laboratory can be equipped and develop the expertise to perform all these procedures. This course is therefore designed to give a laboratory technician a general overview of the range of these tests using pertinent examples for cardiovascular, infections, disease-indicative blood proteins and enzymes, hormones, injury-related breakdown products, gases and electrolytes., trace elements, toxins, ingested toxic chemicals and drugs.
The student will also be introduced to regulations and standards governing the conduct and performance of clinical laboratories such as CLIA rules and other regulatory regimes.

Nursing Curriculum, BSN

The Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) combines rigorous classroom instruction in the medical sciences with extensive clinical experience and practical work. The program is designed to help students master the complex subjects of medical sciences- anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, immunology, pathology- and their application to clinical practice specific to the nursing profession and direct patient care.

In all of its health care and health service training, the university recognizes our community’s challenges in healthcare. The nursing program, as are all related programs, provides a holistic approach combining basic medical science, clinical patient care and disease prevention. In addition, nursing students in this program will be trained to understand and respond to the complex interplay of human anatomy and physiology function and disease states.

Students in the BSN track are required to start clinical experience at the beginning of the second year and are required to complete one full year of practical clinical and laboratory experience. Candidates for the degree must achieve a minimum of 2.0 grade point average and 154 credit hours.

Required Courses

Nursing, BSN
Year I Semester I
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
ENG101 Remedial English 3
NUR 111 Human Anatomy and Physiology I 4
NUR 112 Human Anatomy and Physiology Lab for Nurses 3
NUR 113 College Chemistry for Nursing Students 4
NUR 114 Principles of Psychology 3
Year I Semester II
Code Course Credit Hours (18)
NUR 201 English II: Writing and Comprehension 4
NUR 121 Introduction to Biochemistry-Chemical Principles of Health 4
NUR 122 Fundamentals and Practice of Nursing 3
NUR 123 Introduction to Microbiology for Nurses 4
NUR 124 Microbiology Laboratory for Nurses 3
Year I Semester III
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
Course code Course title Credit hours
NUR131 Chemistry Laboratory- Basic Techniques, Weights and Measures 3
NUR 132 Anatomy and Physiology II 4
NUR133 Pharmacology and Therapeutics, I 4
NUR 134 Introduction to Hematology and Immunology 3
NUR 135 Hematology Laboratory 3
Year II Semester I
Code Course Credit Hours (18)
NUR 211 Reproduction and Embryology 3
NUR 212 Pathophysiology I 4
NUR 213 Introduction to Nutrition, I 3
NUR 214 Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases 4
NUR 215 Infection Control and Safety Laboratory 2
NUR 216 FGM and Traditional Health Customs 2
Year II Semester II
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
NUR 221 Nutrition II -Laboratory: Growth Curves for Children, Anthropometric measurements 3
NUR 222 Introduction to Bio statistics and Basic Research Tools 3
NUR 223 Clinical Nursing, I 4
NUR 224 Introduction to Human Genetics and Disorders 3
NUR 225 Pathophysiology II 4
Year II Semester III
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
NUR 231 Communication and Counselling for Nurses 3
NUR 232 Reproduction and Family Planning 3
NUR 233 Clinical Nursing II 4
NUR 234 Pharmacology and Therapeutics, II 4
NUR 235 Medicine and drug administration- dose calculations- Laboratory 3
Year III Semester I
Code Course Credit Hours (16)
NUR 311 Nursing for Infants, Pediatrics and Adolescents 3
NUR 312 Community Health Nursing 3
NUR 313 Obstetrics and Gynecology 4
NURT 314 Ethics in Nursing 3
NUR 315 Mental Health and Psychiatry 3
Year III Semester II
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
NUR 321 Communicable Diseases and STD Control 3
NUR 322 Medical and Surgical Nursing 4
NUR 323 Nursing Care for the Elderly Patient 3
NUR 324 Pharmacology II 4
NUR 325 Histopathology and Lab 3
Year III Semester III
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
NUR 331 Pediatrics II 4
MWF 332 Research Methodology 3
MWF 333 Human Rights and Health Care 3
MWF 334 Biochemistry and Metabolic Diseases- Risk-Indicative Markers 4
MWF 335 Basic Informatics 3
Total credits: 154

Course Descriptions

ENG 101
This is a university-wide course to provide remedial instruction in the language of instructionEnglish. The course is a requirement for all students, regardless of major. There are no prerequisites. Students testing at an intermediate competence, will be assigned to advanced ESL provided by the university.

NUR 111: Human Anatomy and Physiology I. NUR 132: Anatomy and Physiology II
This is a two-trimester course divided into part I and part II due to the large body of course work to be covered. The second part will be taught as NUR 132 in the 3rd trimester of each year. The complete course is a foundation for anatomy and physiology of the human body covering in an introductory manner body systems and organs including skeletal, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, reproductive, urinary and endocrine systems. Focus will be on the relationship between structure and function. NUR 111 is a prerequisite for NUR 132 (Anatomy and Physiology II) and all pathophysiology and histopathology courses. NUR 111 must be taken together with NUR112 (Lab).

NUR 112: Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory
In this course, students will get hands-on practical on human anatomy and physiology.
Instruction will be on life-size models allowing students to visualize in detail all body systems.
Students will also study on a computerized interactive, touch screen simulation, which allows students to follow online instructions and to perform self-examinations.

NUR 113: College Chemistry-Basic Analytical Techniques of Weights and Measures
Students will be introduced to the essential elements of commonly used measurements of chemicals and chemical concentrations relevant to clinical practice especially as they relate to drugs, vaccines and other therapeutic formulations. Students will learn how to use instruments and utensils to measure and prepare appropriate solutions from stock ingredients.

NUR 114: Principles of Psychology
Nurses must understand not only the medical and surgical needs of their patients, but their behavior and help support them emotionally. Thus, nursing students must have at least a basic understanding of important principles and issues of psychology. The course will combine an introduction to general psychology with specific issues of the medical patient-care psychology.

ENG 201: English II: Academic Writing, Prerequisite ENG 101
This is a university-wide course for students who have mastered intermediate to advanced level English language competence to gain writing skills for the purpose of effective communication in a scientific and business environment. For nursing students, it is vital that they are able to communicate effectively with their colleagues and institutions and to convey scientific knowledge to their peers and the larger public.

NUR 121: Introduction to Biochemistry: Chemical Principles of Health
The course is designed to give nursing students a general knowledge of biological and organic chemistry: atomic structure, bonding, important classes of reactions. Students will also be introduced to organic chemistry and the physical properties of functional groups.
Special emphasis will be placed on macromolecules and their role in metabolic and other disorders.

NUR 122: Introduction to the Fundamentals and Practice of Nursing
The course helps beginning nursing students a broad overview of issues relevant to modern nursing practice. The course will cover the history of the nursing profession from its early inception to the modern-day health care systems. Students will be taught the central role of nursing in the interdisciplinary healthcare ecology involving individual patients, family and community.

NUR 123: Introduction to Microbiology for Nurses
This is an introductory course on the basic properties of microorganisms covering the properties of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. This course is a basic science course and will focus on understanding the biology of bacteria, archaea, viruses and eukaryotic microorganisms. Culture and differential properties will be discussed.

NUR 124: Microbiology Laboratory
This is a hands-on practical course. Students will learn the practical ways of culturing and growing microorganisms and observing their basic properties of colony formation and nutrient needs. The focus of this introductory course will be on bacteria. Students will be taught how to do simple differential and vital stains such as the Grams Stain.

NUR 131: Chemistry laboratory
The chemistry lab course is designed to bridge the gap between chemistry concepts one learns in regular chemistry classes to real world situations where nurses deal with chemicals and their reactions. Students will perform simple clinical tests and taught to understand what chemical reactions were involved, for example in dipstick urine tests.

NUR 133: Pharmacology and Therapeutics: Pharmacology I; NUR 231: Pharmacology II: NUR 324
This a two trimester long extensive course divided into Pharmacology I and Pharmacology II
(NUR 231). The nursing student will first be introduced to basic therapeutic drugs, determination of correct doses for administration, rationale for modes of administration, peak levels, half-life, and clearance; pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These concepts will be expanded in the second part of the course to include drug toxicity, side effects and drug-drug interactions. Major classes of therapeutic drugs will also be covered emphasizing drugs for long term use and their implications for the chronic ill patients. New therapeutics for antivirals will also be included.

NUR 134: Introduction to Hematology and Immunology I
This is two trimester course combining hematology and principles of immunology. The introductory section will cover blood composition, blood cells, platelets and brief hematopoiesis. Blood cell staining and microscopic identification will also be covered. Nurses are increasingly caring for patient with hematologic disorders including cancers and a sound understanding is now required. Similarly, nurses must now have a sound conceptual and practical understanding of immunology and the immune system, vaccines, seroprevalence, autoimmunity diseases and the new emerging concepts of immunotherapy.

NUR 135: Biochemistry and Metabolic Diseases
The teaching of biochemistry to nurses and students in health-related fields is becoming increasing important as more and more diseases and ill health are related to biochemical imbalances and metabolic disorders. Patient care to re-establish homeostasis requires nurses understanding of the chemical process of living cells in disease states. This course will offer the students the basic knowledge in biological chemistry that will advance knowledge gained in other basic science such as organic chemistry and general chemistry.

NUR 136: Hematology Laboratory
This hematology laboratory is designed for nurses and instructs the student with techniques ranging from phlebotomy, understanding blood specimen collection techniques, requirements for the various vacutainer tubes used in blood collection and subsequent performance of differential counts, both manual and automated. Understanding the meanings and implication of values such as total and differential cell counts, hematocrit and hb, microcytic and macrocytic anemia determinations and various blood cell disorders.

NUR 211: Reproduction and Embryology
This is a one trimester course which will focus the student on the importance of early development of the fetus, first focusing on early development mechanisms and the second half on the developing organ systems and understand clinical correlates. Students will be introduced to congenital malformations and maternal issues that affect the development of the fetus.

Nursing and Midwifery students take this course together.

NUR 212: Pathophysiology and Pathophysiology II NUR 225
Pathophysiology and pathobiology relate to the mechanisms that lead to disease and injury, not only in infectious diseases as discussed in NUR214, but all illnesses and injury. The clinical manifestations, signs, symptoms of disease and the cause of these will be discussed. A vital segment of this course will be devoted to tissues, their structure and the changes (pathology) that take place after illness or injury.

NUR 213: Introduction to the Principles of Nutrition I; NUR 221 Nutrition II
Students in this course will be helped to gain substantial knowledge of nutrition sciences from the traditional ill-effects of undernutrition to the emerging ideas of general malnutrition- obesity and micronutrient deficiencies. The effects of acute malnutrition in times of food security stress (lack of food availability or acute disease state) and chronic progressive malnutrition will be studied. The Nursing student in this course will gain the understanding to guide the patient to the scientifically proven course for restoring good nutrition
In NUR 221, Nutrition II(Lab) Students will be engaged in practical experiments and learning modules in the construction of children growth curves and explaining and helping new mothers how to follow infant and early child development. Students will also learn the anthropometric determinations used in nutrition sciences.

NUR 214: Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases
This course is a college-wide requirement for students in the Medical Laboratory Technology, Nursing and Midwifery. Infectious diseases remain major causes of disease in both developing and developed world regions of the world and present leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The course will focus on infectious diseases prevalent in the region covering bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. The interplay between the mode of pathogen entry into the human body, their transmission from host to host, carrier vectors and disease causation will be addressed. Students will be introduced to the complex interaction between infectious agents and cellular elements, such as receptors and adhesion molecules in infections and disease. The connection between the hosts immune response and inflammation will be discussed.

NUR 215: Infection Control and Safety-Laboratory Practical Hygiene for Nurses
Nosocomial infections are a great cause of concern particularly with the emergence of superbugs and difficult to treat microorganisms; highlighting the importance of training health personnel, especially nurses, in general safety and infection control. The course will cover issues ranging from WASH, prevention of injuries from needle sticks and sharps, control of cross contamination in the health care settings and PROPER USE and safe sterilization of instruments.
This will be a practical training module.

NUR 216; FGM/FGC Practice and Health Implications
The World Health Organization has recommended the inclusion of course on FGM in the health curricula of nurses and midwives in basic, post-basic and in-service training. The Course will cover the types of FGM, their acute immediate adverse effects and long -erm complications and consequences for reproduction. Nurses and midwives will be taught to identify and care for FGM-related health issues including urinary retention, wound infections, tissue abrasions, infections including tetanus and blood borne STDs (HIV, Hepatitis B and C, Herpes Simplex).

NUR 221: Nutrition II: Laboratory- see Nursing I companion

NUR 222: Introduction to Biostatistics and Elementary Statistical Tools
Nurses are participants in medical and clinical research and must be proficient in performing scientific research as well as in understanding scientific literature, both of these require understanding of descriptive statistics and parametric and nonparametric tests. This course will introduce the student to commonly used basic and fundamental statistical techniques such as meanings of p values, confidence limits, sample size calculations, Student’s t test, chi-square and how to construct these analytical tools. Students will be asked to compile data sets, analyze these data sets statistically and make understandable descriptive illustrations.

NUR 223: Clinical Nursing I and NUR 234 Clinical Nursing II
These two consecutive courses lay the foundation of nurses in clinical practice. The focus will be on concepts of therapeutic intervention, communication between nurses, doctors and patients. The process of evaluation and assessment of will be explored in learning strategies. Patient care from the perspective of safety, hygiene and comfort and emotional well-being will be studied. Finally, students will be taught concepts of health promotion and disease prevention.

NUR 224: Introduction to Human Genetics and Disorders
Since the discovery of the structure of DNA and associated molecules, we have obtained a staggering level of knowledge. The course will teach students in the college’s allied health program classical human genetics and congenial disorders. The students will also be introduced to our current understanding of the human genome, the nature of DNA and genes and transmittance of inheritance.

NUR 225: Pathophysiology II (see pathophysiology I, NUR 212)

NUR 231: Communication and Counselling Skills for Nurses
Nurses are on the front line of health care and patient interaction are required to acquire appropriate communication skills as well as provide basic counselling to those who come for help. Indeed, nurse-patient communication is the most importance of nursing daily activity. The routine and daily extensive interaction with suffering patients maybe of one the most challenging aspects of nursing practice for many nurses who must learn to navigate complex issues that may affect the job satisfaction and emotional well-being of the nurses. This course is designed to help nurses acquire the skills in communication and counselling for a healthful as well as rewarding career.

NUR 233: Reproduction and Family Planning
Family planning in the Somali peninsula presents special challenges for nurses and health care practitioners. All governments in the region have endorsed international policies and programs, nevertheless, nurses, midwives and other frontline health caregivers must learn how to navigate religious, cultural and socioeconomic issues. The course is designed to help nurses and midwives work in family planning with sensitivity specialty within the context of Islam using communication and counselling material provided by Islamic institutions and United Nations agencies such UNEFPA’s “Family Planning in the Legacy of Islam” tool book.

NUR 234: Clinical Nurse II (see NUR -----)

NUR 235: Drug concentrations, terminology and dose determination laboratory
In this one trimester course, students will learn the terminology used in medicinal formulations (such as unites, moles, grams or milligrams and related denominations, ppm etc). The course is necessitated by deficiencies observed at university intake of all students. Students will be taught how to quickly prepare the correct doses for administration, to prepare desired reagents from stock concentrations, performing correct dilutions.

NUR 311: Nursing Care for infants, pediatrics and young adolescents
This is a one trimester course designed to help the student nurse to understand the unique needs of families with young children facing illness. The emphasis is on the whole family and not just the young in the family in need of care. Students are taught to assess, plan and implement interventions appropriate for long term wellness, health restoration and maintenance of good health.

NUR 312: Community Health Nursing
Community health nursing merges traditional nursing knowledge and public health sciences to promote and improve the overall health of the population. Public health nursing is a comprehensive approach to reduce overall risk, promote healthful living and health maintenance through education and coordination of interventions. Students will learn how to promote a holistic approach directed at the community taking account of the ill-health determinants including ecological, economical, occupational and cultural influences.

NUR 313: Obstetrics and Gynecology (Pre-requisite Clinical Nurse I and II)
Nursing students in this course will be instructed to develop their knowledge and skills in women’s health during pregnancy and childbirth. Students will be taught how to interact, take history of the patient and perform physical examinations in the pre-natal clinic. Students will finally be assigned to work with a team in the obstetrics department for 4 weeks to actively assist clinicians and midwives during labor and childbirth.

NUR 314: Nursing Ethics
The objective of this course is to help the nursing student apply the nursing code of ethics as formulated by their professional associations. Nurses are at the forefront of the health care profession and often the first and most constant presence of patients and their families and are required to make decisions and judgements on how to deal with the patients emotional and clinical needs as well as communicating with other healthcare givers. Nurses will be taught make ethical and moral decisions respecting ethical tenets of patients autonomy, beneficence and justice.

NUR 315: Mental Health and Psychiatry Nursing
The purpose of this course is to focus the nursing student on the needs of the patient with mental health challenges. Nurses will be taught how to apply basic psychiatric knowledge acquired earlier in NUR 114 (Psychology) in the treatment of the psychiatric patient. Teaching will be focused psychological theories and modern treatment of mental health illness as well as other medical issues of these patients.

NUR 321: Communicable Diseases and STD Control
This course will focus on the prevention and treatment of the major and most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes, syphilis, hepatitis B and HIV/AIDS. Students will learn the epidemiology, transmission modes, diagnostic tools and treatment options. Nurses and midwives will learn the sociopsychological implications that impede effective control and treatment.

NUR 322: Medical and Surgical Nursing
Medical-Surgery Nursing or Med-Surg in nursing programs is a follow up course to anatomy and physiology and pathophysiology and help teach nurses how to provide care to adult hospitalized patients especially those recovering from surgery. They are required to learn more about body systems and organs, the disease that affect them and treatments these patients may undergo. They asses patient recovery and progress and help in the discharge of the patients and treatment follow up.

NUR 323: Nursing Care for the Elderly Patient
The course focuses on the care of adult and elderly patients with acute and chronic diseases. The course will be a companion to the general nursing courses covered earlier, but in this course, students will be taught to use critical thinking in therapeutic interventions in the adult patient and to address and respond to societal and cultural influences.

NUR 324: Pharmacology II (see pharmacology I)

NUR 325: Histopathology and Lab
The histopathology laboratory is a companion course for nursing courses in pathology, pathophysiology and the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. The course will cover in illustrative hands-on methodology the mechanism of disease processes. Students will first learn the structure and function of normal tissue through histological slide presentation and later will be able to study tissue and organ structures and the changes in damaged tissues and organs.

NUR 331: Pediatrics II (see related 311)

NUR 332: Research Methodology and Appraisal for Evidence-Based Research
Advancing knowledge through scientific research is the role of all universities. Nurses are required to collect patient and health care data, help analyze that data, read and comprehend complex scientific literature. Students in this course will learn fundamental research methodologies used in clinical research and clinical trials and phases, the different types of research studies (descriptive, cross-sectional, randomization, blind, double-blind, case control and cohort experimentation etc.). In addition, nurses are at the critical junction between research subjects and the investigators and are required to explain the nature of the research, obligations, explain risk of participation and most importantly obtain informed consent by explaining research objectives and benefits.

NUR 333: Human Rights and Health Care
Human Rights and Health touches a wide array of topics the cover the individual’s right and access to health care regardless of ethnicity, handicap, socioeconomic status and gender to the conduct of research. These rights are enshrined in a number of international and regional conventions.

NUR 334: Basic Informatics
The course is devoted to helping master basic information technique (IT) competence. The modern trend in health care services and treatment is towards complete systemic automation. All aspects of data collection, transmission, analysis are all now coded and IT-based. Nurses and midwives will be taught information technologies used in the management of clinical information, wards and facilities, and in providing direct patient care.

Midwifery

Program Description

For the foreseeable future, ATU and the College of Health and Life Sciences will include the midwifery training in critical core programs. The region and Somaliland in particular has unacceptably high infant, child and maternal mortality. A cadre of caregivers specialized in childbirth is essential to improving the overall health of our community. The university’s strategy in brining Somaliland in-line to attaining SDGs includes training a large number of well-trained and qualified midwives through quality university education.

The goal of ATU’s midwifery program is to produce qualified midwives specifically trained for purpose of an resource poor environment. The program is a 3-year course work and an additional one year of practical clinical experience in a hospital or a major health care center taking consecutively with companion course work starting at the sophomore year. ATU’s course is modeled after the internationally accredited curriculum developed by the Somaliland Nursing and Midwifery Association (SNMA) and approved by the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) in 2016.

At the end of the program, the graduate will:

  • Qualify as midwife practitioner able to perform safe deliveries in maternity wards at hospitals or community centers.
  • Trained to give care to mothers and newborn to reduce mother, neonatal and infant morbidity and mortality.
  • Develop the social work capacity to participate in public health programs aimed at the community health improvement
  • Perform within the ethical and moral standards of the profession
  • Develop the love for lifelong learning for continuing professional development.

The curriculum incorporates the 4 Essential competences generally recognized as the basis of midwifery practice:

  • General Competences related to the midwife’s responsibility and ethics, empathy and connection with the mother and newborn and nurse’s ability to discharge her duties as a caregiver.
  • Pre-Pregnancy and antenatal care, involving assessment of pregnancy
    (mother and fetus) and educating mothers towards good health and well-
    being. This competence includes the detection of complications and risks.
  • Labor and birth competency- related to the care during labor and care for the neonate.
  • Capacity to help and care for women and infant after childbirth.

NB: The Nursing and Midwifery programs at Abaarso Tech University are integrated and share facilities and faculty. Initial course work, outside of specialization, is taken together, but common courses are registered with codes specific to the program (NUR code or MWF). In the university catalog, common courses are described in the NURSING major code, except for courses specific for midwives, such as expanded obstetrics, gynecology and neonatology, which are described below after the trimester by trimester list which follows. Please see the course description at the end of this section.

Required Courses

Midwifery
Year I Semester I
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
ENG101 English I 3
MWF 111 Mathematics for medical science 3
MWF 112 Introduction to midwifery and Nursing 4
MWF 113 General College Chemistry 4
MWF 114 Principles of psychology 3
Year I Semester II
Code Course Credit Hours (18)
MWF 121 Introduction to Microbiology for Nurses 3
MWF 122 Anatomy and Physiology, I 4
MWF 123 English II 3
MWF 124 Cytology 4
MWF 125 Introduction to Biochemistry chemistry-Chemical Principles of Health 4
Year I Semester III
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
MWF 131 Anatomy & physiology II 4
MWF 132 Pharmacology I 3
MWF 133 Medical microbiology and parasitology 4
MWF 134 Biochemistry 3
MWF 135 Academic writing 3
Year II Semester I
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
MWF 211 Embryology 3
MWF 212 Pathophysiology I 4
MWF 213 Nutrition I 3
MWF 214 Obstetrics I 4
MWF 215 Medical surgical nursing I 3
MWF 216 Heath assessment and physical examination 3
Year II Semester II
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
MWF 221 Nutrition II 3
MWF 222 Bio statistics and epidemiology 4
MWF 223 Medical surgical nursing II 4
MWF 224 Genetics 3
MWF 225 Pathophysiology II 3
Year II Semester III
Code Course Credit Hours (18)
MEF 231 Maternal health education 3
MWF 232 Mass communication 3
MWF 233 Obstetrics II 4
MWF 234 Reproductive health 3
MWF 235 introduction of management & administration 3
MWF 217 Medical ethics of health care 2
Year III Semester I
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
MWF 311 Health service management & policy 3
MWF 312 Obstetric III 4
MWF 313 Gynecology 4
MWF 314 Pediatrics I 3
MWF 316 Neonatology 3
Year III Semester II
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
MWF 321 Communicable diseases and STD 4
MWF 322 Mental health & Illness in childbearing women 3
MWF 323 FGM/FGC and family planning 3
MWF 324 Research methodology 3
MWF 325 Pharmacology II 4
Year III Semester III
Code Course Credit Hours (17)
MWF 331 Human rights and family law 4
MWF 332 Pediatrics II 4
MWF 333 Teaching methodology 3
MWF 334 Psychiatry 3
MWF 335 Obstetrics III 3
Total credits: 155

Course Descriptions

MWF: OBSTETRICS I, II, III
An estimated 800 million women (90% living in developing regions) die every day from preventable pregnancy and childbirth causes. Training competent midwives is essential to reducing the unacceptable high maternal and neonatal mortality. ATU midwives go through three courses in obstetrics. The first course introduces students to essential midwifery, teaching students for ICM competence 1.

Obstetrics II
In Obstetrics two, students move to the labor and delivery stage, starting with sessions on the physiology of labor, learn conditions of spontaneous and induced labors, respiratory and circulatory passage of the fetus, issues of complications of preterm, prematurity birth and early rupture of the placenta. Students will be taught the mechanics of birth such as cord clamping timing and respiratory support. Students will also be trained on VBAC and instrumental vaginal birth.

Obstetrics III (Emergencies in Clinical Obstetrics)
In the last segment of the three-part course, the aim is to train the nearly qualified midwife to manage challenging conditions and emergencies. Clinicians, midwives and nurses form a team during life threatening childbirth and the purpose of the course for the whole team unit is to understand and perform their role and to communicate appropriately and timely with other team members. Students are also trained to treat the cause of the emergency such as umbilical cord prolapse, shoulder dystocia and postpartum hemorrhage.

MWF: NEONATOLOGY
This one trimester course introduces nurses and midwives to the practice of taking care of newborns. The focus is on newborns with complications such as preterm or premature babies or babies born with complications for example babies in intensive care units (NICU).

MWF: Mental Health and Illness in Expecting Mothers
Ample evidence indicates that expecting mothers are more prone to mental health issues than the general population. Globally, More than 10% of pregnant women or those who just gave birth are affected. Mothers and expecting mothers with mental health pose a level of risk to the health and well-being to the fetuses or their newborn. This course focuses on avenues for nurses and midwives to provide effective treatment.